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The Transitional Justice Peace Agreements Database.  
 
Database - Record for : Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi
Record 312

Country :

Burundi

Agreement Title/Name:
Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi
Year :
2000
Date Signed :

28 August 2000

Summary :

Very lengthy agreement which aims to be binding in nature, setting out specific obligations. Framed as a short ceasefire agreement , with a number of lengthy detailed Protocols attached and explanatory appendices covering peace and security, democracy, reconstruction and development, and implementation


Parties :
Govt of the Rep of Burundi, the National Assembly, The Alliance Burundo-Africaine pour le Salut (ABASA), The Alliance Nationale pour le Droit et le Développement (ANADDE), The Alliance des Vaillants (AV-INTWARI), The Conseil National pour la Défense de la Démocratie (CNDD), The Front pour la Démocratie au Burundi (FRODEBU), The Front pour la Libération Nationale (FROLINA), The Parti Socialiste et Panafricaniste (INKINZO), The Parti pour la Libération du Peuple Hutu (PALIPEHUTU), The Parti pour le Redressement National (PARENA), The Parti Indépendant des Travailleurs (PIT), The Parti Libéral (PL), The Parti du Peuple (PP), The Parti pour la Réconciliation du Peuple (PRP), The Parti Social-Démocrate (PSD), The Ralliement pour la Démocratie et le Développement Economique et Social (RADDES), The Rassemblement du Peuple Burundais (RPB) and The Union pour le Progrès National (UPRONA)
Third Parties :
Statehood/Identity :
Parties commit to establishing an inclusive democratic Burundian state; and provide a power map for government (see NDIs). Protocol I is dedicated to 'Nature and Historical Causes of the Conflict'.
Governance/Democratic Inst :
Protocol 2, Chapter 1, Article 6 establishes bicameral legislature with provision for Senate to co-opt members of the Batwa group; Protocol 2, Article 13 provides for elected bodies at 'colline' and commune level; Protocol 2, Chapter 2, Article 15(13) power-sharing in transitional exec; Constitution
Women :
Protocol 1, Article 5 'General Political Measures' mentions equality between men and women; Article 6 'Principles and measures relating to genocide, war crimes and other crimes against humanity' includes gender-based HR violations; Article 7 lists gender balance as a principle and measure relating to public admin (par.5), girls and primary education (pars 11 & 12), correcting gender imbalance in judicial machinery (par. 18b); Article 8, par. 2 provides for women's orgs (amongst others) to put forward candidates for membership of the National TRC; Protocol 2, Article 3.19 guarantees women equal property rights with men; Ch.2, Article 20(8) electoral quotas; Protocol 4, Ch.3, Article 13 (d) 'initiation of tangible actions for the advancement of women' as a principle of political reconstruction; Protocol IV, Ch.3, Article 16(i) calls for promotion of women in development; Protocol 5 Preamble mention
Amnesty :
Protocol 3, Ch.3, Article 26(L) provides for amnesty for all combatants other than acts of genocide, crimes against humanity or war crimes, or participation in coups d'etat
Past Mechanism :
Protocol 1, Article 8.1 provides for National TRC with powers of investigation, arbitration and reconciliation, and clarification of history; Protocol 1, Article 6 request to UNSC to establish an Int'l Judicial Commission of Inquiry (par.10) and an international criminal tribunal (par. 11) [restated in Protocol 2, Ch.2, Article 18; also mentioned in Protocol 5, Article 5(3) & 5(4)]
Prisoner Release :
Protocol II, Chapter II, art.15 (20) establishes commission to consider release of all political prisoners
Victims :
Not Applicable
Criminal Justice Reform :
Protocol 1, Article 18 'Principles and measures relating to justice' commits to judicial reform, incl. establishing post of Ombudsman (g.) ; Protocol 2, Chapter 1, Article 9 selecting judiciary (ethnic and gender balance), establishes Judicial Services Commission as the highest disciplinary body of the magistracy, sets out court structures; Protocol 2, chapter 2, Article 17 provides for existing legislation relating to organisation of judiciary, criminal and civil codes procedures, and map of judicial jurisdiction to be reviewed, commitment to establish effective oversight bodies, and and permits appointment of foreign jurists to the judiciary (par. 10);
National Human Rights Inst :
Protocol 2, Article 10.7 establishes office of Ombudsperson for public administration
Human Rights Framework :
Protocol 2 agrees principles to be observed when Constitution is drafted; Protocol 2, Article 3 Charter of Fundamental Rights lists enforceable rights; provides for int'l docs to 'form integral part' of new constitution. Protocol III providing for 'Peacea and Security for all' also provides for principles which are related to human rights matters.
Judicial Reform :
Protocol 1, Article 18 'Principles and measures relating to justice' commits to judicial reform, incl. establishing post of Ombudsman (g.) ; Protocol 2, Chapter 1, Article 9 selecting judiciary (ethnic and gender balance), establishes Judicial Services Commission as the highest disciplinary body of the magistracy, sets out court structures; Protocol 2, chapter 2, Article 17 provides for existing legislation relating to organisation of judiciary, criminal and civil codes procedures, and map of judicial jurisdiction to be reviewed, commitment to establish effective oversight bodies, and and permits appointment of foreign jurists to the judiciary (par. 10);
Policing :
Protocol 3, Ch.2 deals with mission, structure, composition, size and balance, and technical committee (see also Protocol 5, Article 5(5)); Annex 2 Structure of the National Police of Burundi
Refugees/Land :
Article 7, (10) reinstatement of former refugees in public administration. Protocol 4, Chapter 1, 'Rehabilitation and Resettlement of Refugees and Sinistres', incl. the establishment of a National Commission for the Rehabilitation of Sinistres [the term "sinistrés" designates all displaced, regrouped, and dispersed persons and returnees]; Protocol 3, Article 3 role for UNHCR in refugee return,
Civil Society :
Protocol 1, Article 8.2 provides for civil society (amongst others) to put forward candidates for membership of the TRC; Protocol 2, Chapter 2, Article 15(3)(c) The transitional National Assembly shall have 28 members representing civil society orgs (as currently exists in the National Assembly); Protocol 4, Article 13 (g) 'support for the development and strengthening of civil society' as principle of political reconstruction
Dev& Socio-Economic Rights :
Not Applicable
Enforcement Mechanism :
Protocol 2, Article 17 provides for commission to be established by transitional National Assembly to monitor reforms of public admin and adminitration of justice, and make recommendations accordingly; Protocol 2, Article 20 establishes National Electoral Commission to organise and oversee elections; Protocol 3, Ch.3, Article 27 establishes Ceasefire Commission to consist of reps of govt, combatants, UN, OAU and Regional Peace Initiative, responsible for disarmament of all illegally armed civilians, investigating ceasefire violations, etc.; Protocol 3, Ch.2, Article 14 establishes Technical Committees to implement the procedures for national defense force, national police and the intelligence service, Article 21 (8) establishes Reintegration Commission for demobilised combatants; Protocol 4, Ch. 3, Article 17 Inter-Ministerial Reconstruction and Development unit; Protocol 5 'Guarantees on Implementation of the Agreement', provides extensively for implementation. Article 3 establishes Implementation Monitoring Committee to follow-up, monitor, supervise, coordinate and ensure the effective implementation of the agreement, and establish sectoral commissions. Will include parties' reps, govt rep, six Burundians of 'moral integrity', reps of UN, OAU, and regional Peace Initiative on Burundi; Annex 5 Implementation Timetable;
International Community :
Article 6, agreement to be lodged with OAU. Protocol 2, Article 17.10 states need for intl cooperation and legal assistance for judicial reform, and permits appointment of foreign jurists to the judiciary; Protocol 3, Article 3.d) request int' orgs and host countries to conduct gender and age disaggregated census of the refugees, Ch.3, Article 27, Ceasefire Commission to consist of reps from the UN, OAU, and the Regional Peace Initiative for Burundi; Protocol 4, Ch.3, Article 17 World Bank, UNDP, UNHCR, European Commission will be asked to support the Reconstruction and Development Program; Protocol 5, Article 3(2) IMC to include UN, OAU and Regional Peace Initiative Reps; Protocol 2, Article 20 establishes National Electoral Commission may consists of non-Burundians
UN Involvement :
Signed in the presence of the UN; Article 6, agreement to be lodged with UN. Protocol 3, Article 3 role for UNHCR in refugee return, Ch.3, Article 27 UN reps on Ceasefire Commission; Protocol 4, Ch.1, Article 3 role of UNHCR in refugee resettlement; Protocol 4, Ch.3, Article 17 UNDP and UNHCR mentioned; Protocol 5 UN role throughout implementation, esp. Article 8 request for peacekeeping force
Source :
USIP


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